Week Beginning 21.9.20

The children have completed their first full week of school and it’s safe to say that we had some very tired children by hometime today!

It has been a wonderful week of learning. The children have been very busy focussing on the story ‘Owl Babies’ by Martin Waddel. This lovely tale is about three baby owls who are missing their mummy- a perfect story for the children during this time of transition!

Over the course of the week, the children have made nests from lots of different materials, owl masks, puppets, drawings and paintings. They have also learnt lots of facts about owls and other nocturnal animals.

The children have also had lots of fun playing active maths games and exploring the other activities on offer, both in the inside and outdoor learning environments.

Reception have been participating in a Special Prayer Time every morning and we are already so impressed with their reverence! The children are also trying very hard to learn the school Mission Prayer-

We believe that we are all God’s work of art. We strive to respect and care for each other and to use our talents to do our best. By doing this, we are ‘Learning in the Light of Christ’

Reading books will be sent home over the course of next week. Information about your child’s reading day will be inside the front cover of the reading record.

Wishing you all a restful weekend,

The Early Years Team

Welcome to Reception

Welcome to Reception. It’s been a long time coming, but we are all finally together!

The children have had a fantastic first week at Pope Paul School and have enjoyed exploring their new learning environment, learning new routines, getting to know staff and making new friends. The staff have been amazed at how well they all listen and how fantastic they all are at following instructions. They are set to be a group of brilliant learners!

Here are a small selection of photos taken over the week.

Wishing you all a wonderful weekend,

The Reception Team

 

   

 

Week Beginning 13.7.20 Reception Learning Overview

Dear Children, Parents and Carers,

It’s hard to believe that we are entering into our final week in Reception. I want to take this opportunity to thank you all for your amazing hard work and support over the year. It has been a pleasure to get to know you and I will miss you all.

Wishing you all a safe and happy summer,

Mrs Theo

 

Message from Mrs Carey, Year 1 teacher- Due to space and storage constraints, we do not have room for big, bulky school bags. Instead, please continue to use the book bag from Reception. Thank you.

Our final story focus is ‘Elmer’ by David McKee

Choose one or two things from each area to do over the week.

If you do not have a copy of the story, you can watch the author, David McKee, reading: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFrD18XLmlM

 

Personal, Social and Emotional Development (PSED)

  • Discuss why Elmer didn’t want to be different.
  • Why is it OK to be different from other people?
  • How can we celebrate our differences like the elephants do on Elmer Day?
  • An old elephant says to Elmer “It didn’t take you long to show your true colours.” Discuss what this expression means with your family.

Communication and Language 

Things to discuss with your family:

  • In what ways are all the elephants in the herd the same?
  • In what ways are the elephants in the herd different?
  • Elmer is a different colour to the other elephants but is he the same as the other elephants in any way?
  • Is Elmer different to the other elephants in ways other than his colour?
  • Why do you think Elmer is tired of being different? How can being different make you tired?
  • Do you think that Elmer is happy when he is elephant coloured? Does it help Elmer to pretend to be something that he is not?
  • When Elmer comes back to the herd he feels that something is wrong but when he looks around everything is the same? What is different that is making Elmer feel strange?
  • Is it important to celebrate the differences between us, as well as the similarities?
  • What do you think the world would be like if we were all exactly the same? 

Physical Development

  • Make a jungle-With the help of an adult, fill a large tray/ bucket with damp soil, and collect plants leaves, grasses and twigs to place in it. If you have plastic toy animals you could place them in the tray. Perhaps you could add colour sticky squares or dots to a plastic elephant to be Elmer. Tell the story of Elmer or make up your own stories.
  • Create an elephant wash! Use some small-world elephants, some mud and some soapy water. Clean the muddy elephants! Use sponges, scrubbing brushes and pump soap dispensers.
  • Create a jungle from construction or junk modelling materials.

Maths

Count how many….

  • Berries are on the bush?
  • The coloured patches on Elmer?
  • How many elephants are in the herd?
  • How many other animals are in the jungle?

 

  • Look at the shapes and patterns on the decorated elephants. Do any of them have repeating patterns, symmetry, or tessellation?
  • Make repeated patterns using different square designs.
  • Go on a square hunt around your home. 

Literacy

  • Write a message to Elmer from the other elephants. Talk about what they might want to say to him. For example that they like him just the way he is or that they find him really funny.
  • Read more books by David McKee.Other Elmer books include:Elmer’s Colours, Elmer’s Friends, Elmer’s Day, Elmer and the Rainbow

David McKee has also written and illustrated many other popular books; titles include:Not Now Bernard, Two Monsters, King Rollo, Mr Benn

  • Write an invitation for an Elmer’s Day celebration.
  • Write about why you are one of a kind.

 

Phonics- It is highly important that your child practises their letter sounds and tricky words and applies them through a reading and writing activity daily. Reading will help improve their vocabulary and a child’s academic success depends upon the ability to read and write and so this should be a priority.

Please continue to practise all letters sound and tricky words taught to date. They need to be able to recognise and write all phase 2 and 3 sounds in order to get off to a really good start in Year 1. If you download a sheet such as this https://www.twinkl.co.uk/resource/t-l-1972-phase-3-phonics-letters-and-assessment-sheets then you can assess your child to see which sounds your child knows securely, and which sounds need revising.

Understanding the World 

  • What is a jungle? What lives there?
  • Use an atlas or a globe to look at places around the world where there are jungles and where elephants live in the wild.
  • Find out about different types of elephants. 

Expressive Art and Design

  •  Look at different photos of elephants and draw your own.
  • How many different colours can you think of? Explore mixing colours to make new ones.
  • Make a patchwork picture inspired by the artist Kadinsky. Cut out coloured squares from a magazine, arrange the coloured squares in a patchwork design and stick on a sheet of paper.

  • Decorate an elephant like the ones joining in the Elmer parade. If you make several you could cut them out and hang them on a string suspended across a wall or ceiling to create a line of elephants on parade.
  • Make some Elmer ears or a trunk.

  • Make an Elmer lantern from a plastic milk bottle and tissue paper.
  • Bake and decorate some Elmer biscuits.

RE

To show that RE is a special learning time, we always light a candle to mark the beginning of lesson and ask ‘Who is with us when we light the candle?’ and ‘Who do we learn about in our RE lesson?’

We then say the school’s Mission Prayer together.

Please see the separate RE blog for the whole school learning focus and complete the activity. Thank you!                                 

 

Welcome to Year 1!

Hello Reception children,

I am looking forward to meeting you tomorrow at our transition morning. I have attached a powerpoint to introduce you to the adults and to see your new classroom. I am excited about getting to know you all in September.

Mrs Carey

Welcome to Year 1

 

Week Beginning 6.7.20 Reception Weekly Overview

Well done to all the children who participated in last week’s Pope Paul Olympics. I hope you had lots of fun doing so! Don’t forget to send your results in! These pictures were sent in by Jack and Eloise!

This week’s story focus is ‘Six Dinner Sid’

We would also like you to join in with the whole school focus- ‘Transition’.

The learning activities below have been designed to celebrate the year that your child has had and ease their transition to their new year group in September. Each day, there is an activity that focuses on a different aspect of the transition process.

MondayHOPES AND WORRIES

  • Make a Worry Monster out of recyclable materials.
  • The Worry Monster will eat/take/hold/have the worries.

Tuesday- REFLECTION OF THE YEAR

  • Draw a picture of what you have most enjoyed this year on the front.
  • On the back, write about what you most enjoyed and why.
  • Give the postcard to a friend as a reminder of what you have done and enjoyed this year.

Wednesday- GOODBYE

    • Make cards for your teachers at school and your teachers at home.(Mummy and Daddy)
    • Reflect on what you particularly enjoyed and are your proudest moments from the year.
    • Discuss the feelings of moving on and moving up.

Thursday- HELLO

    • Write a letter to your new teacher, Mrs Carey.
    • Tell her all about yourself – your name, what you like to be called, age, birthday, favourite subjects, subjects you find tricky, hobbies, interests, pets, favourite colour, who you work well with, etc.…
    • Write any questions you have for Mrs Carey.

 

Friday- LOOKING FORWARD

  • Create a poster of your summer holiday plans.
  • Things you would like to do in the summer and what you are looking forward to.

 

 Activities for Six Dinner Sid

Sid is a cat who is addicted to having six meals a day and glories in this lifestyle. Manipulative, persuasive and a charmer he has wrapped everybody round his little paw – each owner believes that Sid belongs to them only . . . until the day he is found out!

Watch a version of the story here: https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Six+Dinner+Sid&&view=detail&mid=60C83B8E8EB3FE85BC7D60C83B8E8EB3FE85BC7D&&FORM=VRDGAR&ru=%2Fvideos%2Fsearch%3Fq%3DSix%2BDinner%2BSid%26FORM%3DHDRSC4

 

Personal, Social and Emotional Development (PSED)

  • Talk about your favourite family dinners- when do you special dinners together?

Communication and Language 

  • Six Dinner Sid- Why did Sid decide to live in 6 different houses? Describe how each owner felt about him. Choose one of the words used to describe him, i.e. ‘silly’. Think of other words that are similar that we can use and write them down.
  • Play a rhyming nonsense game- what silly rhyming words can you think of that rhyme with Sid, dinner and six? Take it in turns with your adult. Choose some more words to play with. 

Physical Development

    • Make an animal ambulance from junk modelling materials or construction such as Lego.
    • Make animal hospital buildings for your soft toys.
    • Wrap and tie bandages around different parts of your soft toys.
    • Move around like different animals.
    • Build animal enclosures. 

Expressive Arts and Design 

Understanding the World

  • Find out about the work of the RSPCA and how they help animals in need. https://education.rspca.org.uk/
  • Who helps the animals when they are sick or injured? Find out about the job of a vet.

Maths

  • Draw a ‘street’ number line 1-20 independently.
  • Practical problem solving- lay the table for 6 people dining together.
  • Build houses on a street with 3D wooden bricks. Listen to instructions from your adult; for example, drive this car to house number 11. Which number houses are next door? If I drive 3 doors down, what number house will I be at? Keep a record of how many cubes/ cuboids/ cylinders and pyramids you have used. Label each house with a street number. Ask your adult to mix up the houses, then put them in the correct order.
  • Create money for your pet shop/vets.
  • Make animal pictures using sticky shapes.
  • Sort or find things that are grouped into sets of 6. E.g. 6 eggs
  • Look out for door numbers when you are out and about. What is the biggest number you saw?

Literacy

  • Draw and label pictures of your pet or a pet that you wish you could have.
  • Write medical notes in your vets role- play area.
  • Create posters and labels for your pet shop.
  • Write out some instructions explaining how to look after an animal of your choice.

Phonics- It is highly important that your child practises their letter sounds and tricky words and applies them through a reading and writing activity daily. Reading will help improve their vocabulary and a child’s academic success depends upon the ability to read and write and so this should be a priority.

Please do the daily Department for Education (DFE) ‘Letters and Sounds’ live phonics lesson.

RE

To show that RE is a special learning time, we always light a candle to mark the beginning of lesson and ask ‘Who is with us when we light the candle?’ and ‘Who do we learn about in our RE lesson?’

We then say the school’s Mission Prayer together.

Please see the separate RE blog for the whole school learning focus.

Thank you!

Have a lovely weekend!

The Reception Team

Virtual Sports Week Olympics.

 

Welcome to the Pope Paul Olympics! Like many things this year, the Olympics has unfortunately been postponed due to the coronavirus. This, however is not going to stop us having our very own Olympic games celebration!

Have a look at the timetable to see what we have planned and then follow the information on each slide. Each day will be made up one of a PE activity and also another subject task to complete!

Virtual Sports Week Olympics June

Week Beginning 29.6.20 Reception Weekly Overview

This week we have two learning themes- ‘The Little Red Hen’ and ‘The Pope Paul Olympics’

Like many things this year, the Olympics has unfortunately been postponed due to the coronavirus. This however is not going to stop us from having our very own Olympic Games celebration!

Have a look at the timetable to see what Pope Paul School have planned for this week and then follow the information on each slide. Each day will be made up of one PE activity and also another optional task to complete!

http://popepaul.herts.sch.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Virtual-Sports-Week-Olympics-June.pptx

Choose one or two things from each area to do over the week.

Read ‘The Little Red Hen’ by downloading it here: https://www.twinkl.co.uk/resource/tp-l-52275-the-little-red-hen-ebook or watch a professional storyteller tell it here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gwx5FvZi18U

Personal, Social and Emotional Development (PSED)

  • Think about the qualities of a good friend- choose a friend from school. What makes them a special friend? How do they make them feel when they are playing with them?
  • Why it is important to be a good friend to others. Do you think the other animals were being a good friend to the Little Red Hen? Why/why not?

 

  • Discuss the different characters in the story. What was their behaviour like? Why? Why do you think they might not want to help the Little Red Hen?
  • Why is it important to work well as part of a team when you are an athlete/ sports person? 

Communication and Language 

  • Retell the story using props found around your home.
  • Make bread with the help of an adult. Describe what you can see, feel and smell as you make it.

 

Physical Development

  • Create windmills from junk modelling materials.
  • When you make bread, knead the dough until it becomes soft and stretchy.
  • With the help of an adult, make some salt dough and use it in a bakers/ kitchen imaginary role play area. Complete the daily Olympic challenge and send your results to: popepaulolympics@herts.sch.uk
  • Have fun exploring what happens when you gradually add water to cornflour.

 

Maths

  • Weigh out all of the ingredients needed to make bread. Practise counting as you add spoonfuls of flour etc
  • Use different shaped paper to make pictures of the farm animals and the windmill.
  • Use 3D shapes to build the farm.
  • Complete the daily maths activity on White Rose Maths. https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/early-years/
  • Use this week to revise number recognition to 20, number formation, and one more than/ one less than any given number. If secure, practise number bonds to ten/twenty. Eg

2&8

4&6

5&5

3 &7

1&9

Literacy

  • Compare different versions of the story – how are they similar/ different? How are the characters different/ similar?
  • Write a letter from one of the farm animals saying sorry to the hen for not being a good friend.
  • Write instructions on how to make bread.
  • Write about your favourite sandwich and how to make it.

 

Phonics- It is highly important that your child practises their letter sounds and tricky words and applies them through a reading and writing activity daily. Reading will help improve their vocabulary and a child’s academic success depends upon the ability to read and write and so this should be a priority.

Please do the daily Department for Education (DFE) ‘Letters and Sounds’ live phonics lesson.

Understanding the World 

  • Find out more about farm animals, windmills and farms. How are they all connected?
  • Make bread, pizzas or sandwiches.
  • Take a walk on the public footpaths on farmland across Potters Bar. Can you find out what the farmers’ are growing?
  • Where do hens come from? Find out about the life-cycle of a hen.
  • Find out where flour comes from and what we can use it for.
  • Find out about the Olympics and where and when they started.
  • Watch ‘Come Outside- Bread’.

 

Expressive Art and Design

 

  • Make a windmill with moving sails.
  • Make birdfeeders to encourage lots of different birds to visit your garden.
  • Set up a little bakers role play and use salt dough or playdough to make bread and cakes to sell.
  • Create signs and posters to put in your bakers.

 

 

 

RE

To show that RE is a special learning time, we always light a candle to mark the beginning of lesson and ask ‘Who is with us when we light the candle?’ and ‘Who do we learn about in our RE lesson?’

We then say the school’s Mission Prayer together.

Please see the separate RE blog for the whole school learning focus and complete the activity. Thank you!

Sing daily, using the BBC Schools Radio website- https://www.bbc.co.uk/teach/school-radio/eyfs-early-years/z6bgnrd

Again, the class love this website and it will be very familiar to them! The class also really enjoy singing the following songs during special prayer time:

Week Beginning 22.6.20 Reception Weekly Overview

This week’s learning is based on the book

‘The Snail and the Whale’ by Julia Donaldson

One tiny snail longs to see the world and hitches a lift on the tail of a whale. Together they go on an amazing journey, past icebergs and volcanoes, sharks and penguins, and the little snail feels so small in the vastness of the world. But when disaster strikes and the whale is beached in a bay, it’s the tiny snail who saves the day.

If you don’t have a copy of the story, don’t worry, you can watch it here: https://youtu.be/hheolVGZVvs 

There is also a wonderful animated short film of the story on BBC iPlayer. https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/m000cslw/the-snail-and-the-whale

 

Choose one or two things from each area to do over the week.

Personal, Social and Emotional Development (PSED)

  • How can we care for snails when we find them?
  • Who helps who in the story?
  • How do you feel when you help people?
  • What could you do at home to be ‘helpful’?
  • Even though the snail is small, he helps to save the whale. Think about your abilities. Is there anything that you thought you couldn’t do, but you managed to when you tried?

Communication and Language 

  • The whale shows the snail around the exotic island. When you next go out, can you describe all the things you can see and hear all around you?
  • What do you know already about snails? Tell your mum or dad everything you know
  • Describe how it feels to move round and round in a spiral.
  • The human activity makes the whale swim too close to the shore. Do you think that this could really happen? How can you find out? What might we be able to do to stop it from happening again?

Physical Development 

  • Watching how snails move- can you move like them?
  • What do we need to do after handling snail?
  • Exploring slime- Make your own slime. https://www.thekitchn.com/how-to-make-3-ingredient-slime-without-borax-245904
  • Build your own snail shell to wear.
  •  Do some snail and whale dancing with: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0440f1f
  • Explore spinning different objects- what object spins the longest?
  • Dance daily, using the free Go-Noodle website- https://www.gonoodle.com/ The class absolutely love this website!
  • Visit the ‘Cosmic Kids Yoga’ channel on Youtube It has some fantastic exercises and activities. See if you can find and copy the ‘whale pose’ on the channel. Have your parents take a picture of you performing the whale pose or any other poses you find on the Cosmic Kids Yoga channel and upload the image to tapestry. 

Maths

  • How many creatures can you see on each page? How many creatures are shown in the whole book?
  • Collect and count snails in your garden/ on your walk.
  • Snail racing – learn about ordinal numbers. 1st, 2nd, 3rd etc
  • Draw maps so that the whale doesn’t get lost again.
  • Complete the White Rose Daily Lessons based on the book ‘The Snail and the Whale’. (Summer Term Week 6) https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/early-years/

 

Literacy

  • Look at pictures of snails and whales and think of words or sentences to describe them.
  • There is a lot of rhyming in the story. Can you find the rhyming words? Can you find other words which rhyme with them?
  • At the end of the story, the snail tells his friends all about his adventure. Can you write what he might have said to them?
  • Write your own story about two different creatures, who go on a big adventure together.
  • Write a postcard from the whale and the snail, telling their friends about where they have been and what they have seen.
  • Use PVA glue and glitter or glitter glue pens, to make secret snail trail messages on black card or paper.
  • Write about where you would like to travel to, on the back of a whale.
 

Phonics- It is highly important that your child practises their letter sounds and tricky words and applies them through a reading and writing activity daily. Reading will help improve their vocabulary and a child’s academic success depends upon the ability to read and write and so this should be a priority.

Please do the daily Department for Education (DFE) ‘Letters and Sounds’ live phonics lesson.

               The Snail 1953 Henri Matisse

Expressive Arts and Design

  • Draw your own seaside picture. Can you draw a picture of what lives under the sea?
  • Create your own spiral paintings.
  • Decorate empty snail shells if you manage to find some!
  • Make snail finger puppets.
  • Make trails with chalk outside.
  • Learn about the famous artist Henri Matisse and his collage, ‘The Snail’ here: https://youtu.be/hy4DUpsC22c and on the Tate Modern webpage here: https://www.tate.org.uk/kids/explore/kids-view/meet-matisse
  • Make your own snail picture collage like Henri Matisse. https://www.tate.org.uk/kids/make/cut-paste/collage-matisse-snail  

Understanding the World

To show that RE is a special learning time, we always light a candle to mark the beginning of lesson and ask ‘Who is with us when we light the candle?’ and ‘Who do we learn about in our RE lesson?’

We then say the school’s Mission Prayer together.

 

Please see the separate RE blog for the whole school learning focus and choose one from the suggested activities. Thank you!

 

                              Ongoing Further Activities and Information

 

Ongoing Maths Activities – try at least one a day

  • Go on a walk and count how many rainbows or teddies you can see in the windows of different houses. Which road has the most?
  • Counting objects within the house-This could be anything as simple as counting the cutlery in your drawer!
  • Looking for shapes in the environment- Can you see the rectangle on the table? The square on the oven door? How many edges does the bookcase have? Can you name the 3D shape that your cereal box is?
  • Using positional and directional language- Where is the teddy? On top, under, behind, in front of, next to, in between etc. Use directions to get from one room to another e.g. walk two steps forward, turn left…
  • Capacity-Fill the bath and give them your child whichever containers you have at home (jugs, Tupperware). Encourage the language of full, nearly full, half full, nearly empty, empty. Will the water to fill this container fit into another container?
  • Time- Create an ‘at home’ timetable together. What shall we do first? What shall do next? What shall we do at the end of the day? Begin to recognise o’ clock times on a clock.
  • Money- Empty your purse or money box. Learn the names of the different coins. Use 1p coins to count and add with.
  • Patterns- Use every day objects around the home to create patterns e.g. pen, fork, sock, pen, fork, sock. Can they continue and copy your pattern? Can they make their own pattern.
  • Length and height- Find three objects from around the home. Can they order them from smallest to largest? Use your feet to measure the length of items in your home (e.g the sofa). How many feet long is it? Counting objects within the house. This could be anything as simple as counting the cutlery in your drawer!
  • Addition using objects found within your home- If we have 5 spoons and 3 forks, how many do we have altogether? Include missing numbers e.g I have 5 buttons. How many more do I need to make 10?
  • Subtraction using objects found within your home- If we have 7 biscuits and I eat 2 how many biscuits are left?
  • Subitising (recognising how many without counting) the amount of objects in a set. How many candles are on the fireplace? How many plates are on the table? Etc
  • Watch a Numberblocks episode each day at: BBC ​iplayer or ​CBeebies​.
  • Practise counting up to 20. This can be done through playing hide and seek, singing number songs, chanting, board games etc.
  • Write out the digits 0 – 9.
  • Sing Number songs to practice counting, reciting numbers in order, one more, one less using number songs: Five Little Ducks, Five Little Men, Ten Green Bottles
  • Practise counting backwards from 20.
  • Look for the numbers on the doors of houses. Do the numbers get bigger or smaller as you go up and down the street?
  • Listen to a number song from the CBeebies​ website. After listening to them, watch again and sing along if you can. Talk about the maths you can see in the video clip.
  • Look out of the window and count how many houses or buildings can be seen
  • Explore weighing and measuring food on the kitchen scales. Ask, what happens as you place more on the scales?

Maths Websites

https://www.topmarks.co.uk/maths-games/5-7-years

https://matr.org/blog/fun-maths-games-activities-for-kids/

https://www.primarygames.com/math.php

https://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/topics/numeracy

https://apps.mathlearningcenter.org/geoboard/

.

White Rose Maths has prepared a series of five maths lessons for each year group from Year R-8. They will be adding five more each week for the next few weeks. Every lesson comes with a short video showing you clearly and simply how to help your child to complete the activity successfully. Click on the link to find out more.

https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/

Independent writing

Parents, please encourage your child to write as often as you can, using their phonics and tricky word knowledge. Please take a close up picture of any writing they do and upload it to Tapestry. If they are forming their letters incorrectly, the wrong way around or hold their pencil the wrong way, please correct your child immediately. Please refer to the inside cover of their original home phonics book for the handwriting phrases, if you find yourself in this position.

 

Phonics

Please continue to practise all of Phase 2 and Phase 3 sounds and tricky words on a daily basis.

Phase 2 tricky and high frequency words

Read: is, it, in, at, and, the, to, no, go, I, on, a

Phase 3 tricky and high frequency words

Read: he, she, we, me, be, was, my, you, they, her, all, are 

Write: the, to, no, go, I 

For those children who know all of the above, please begin to teach the following words from Phase 4. (Consolidating phase) 

Phase 4 tricky words 

Read: said, so, have, like, some, come, were, there, little, one, do, when, out, what 

Information about Phase 4 Phonics

During the summer term and only when the children are secure in Phase 2 and 3, Reception usually move over to the Phase 4 stage of Letters and Sounds. When children start, they will know a grapheme for each of the 42 phonemes. They will be able to blend phonemes to read CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) words and segment in order to spell them.

Children will also have begun reading straightforward two-syllable words and simple captions, as well as reading and spelling some tricky words.

In Phase 4, no new graphemes are introduced. The main aim of this phase is to consolidate the children’s knowledge and to help them learn to read and spell words which have adjacent consonants, such as trap, string and milk.

If your child knows all of the Phase 2 and 3 sounds consistently and the high frequency and tricky words, then please begin to introduce your child to the Phase 4 online games and activities.

Important- Please be aware that if you go onto this phase before they are ready, it may cause your child to have issues with spelling later on in their school life.

The following websites are fantastic for practising phonics phases, word recognition and sentence reading.

https://www.teachyourmonstertoread.com

 

https://www.phonicsplay.co.uk/freeIndex.htm

 

https://www.phonicsbloom.com/

 

http://www.familylearning.org.uk

 

https://www.topmarks.co.uk

 

www.letters-and-sounds.com

 

https://www.spellingcity.com/spelling-games-vocabulary-games.html

 

Twinkl also have some great phonics and cross curricular resources and are also currently free if you follow these instructions:

 

Go to https://www.twinkl.co.uk/offer  and enter the code: UKTWINKLHELPS

 

 

Phonics Play in particular is a fantastic resource for the actual teaching of the Letters and Sounds program. It is currently free to parents due to the Coronavirus situation.

 

Reading

As well as Oxford Owls, Harper Collins Publishers are now giving parents free access to their Big Cat e-books and activities, which are also organised according to book band colour.

Go to Collins Connect and click on the Teacher portal and enter:

Username: parents@harpercollins.co.uk

Password: Parents20!

and then click Login.

To login to Oxford Owl please continue using the school’s login.

https://www.oxfordowl.co.uk/

Username:popepaul2020

Password:Ilovereading2020

You must put the detail into Class Login not the general login otherwise it will not work. Once logged in, you can go into the bookshelf. Select 2 books from your child’s book band colour and practise reading them every day. There are two activities to go with each book and parent tips at the end of the book. If you click on the parents section too, you should find even more books and resources.

Week Beginning 15.6.20 Reception Home Learning Overview

This week’s theme is ‘Superworm’ by Julia Donaldson

Superworm is the story of an ordinary worm, who chooses to use his talents in unusual ways. The worm, Superworm, is friends to many different kinds of creatures and helps them to get out of some difficult circumstances. Disaster strikes when one of the creatures in the book, Wizard Lizard who is a villain, captures Superworm and forces him to locate treasure underground. All his friends must work together to save Superworm from being lost to the magic forever.

Please choose one or two things from each area to do over the week.

Personal, Social and Emotional Development (PSED)

  • Read/ watch Superworm and talk about how he helped his friends when they got into difficulties. Make your own Superworm. Will he be a lasso, a skipping rope, a hoola hoop, or a fishing line? When Superworm himself gets into trouble, the other animals work very hard to save him. What did they do? How would you help Superworm?
  • Superheroes come in many forms-who is your superhero?

Communication and Language

  • Develop a plan with an adult to save Superworm.
  • What do we know about animals and mini- beasts that live under the ground? Would you like to live under ground? Why? Why not?

Physical Development

  • Dig for treasure – use a range of tools to search for previously buried treasure. Sort the treasure into groups according to material.
  • Watch film clips about how worms and other animals move around under the ground. How can we move like them?
  • Make Superworms by stuffing tights with paper. Use the worms for skipping and other games.

  • Learn how to skip.

  • Hook objects with a home-made fishing rod.

 

Expressive Arts and Design

  • Make a 3D worm https://youtu.be/Yss3-upCVWM
  • How to draw a worm- https://youtu.be/7I8lLMFMRM0
  • Design and label your own superbug hero.
  • Make a well – Using materials available, make a well just like the one in the story Teach the children how the well would have been used. Discuss where the location of a well would be.

Understanding the World

  • Find out how a well would have been used.
  • Dig in the ground to find things that lives there.
  • Watch film clips about how worms and other animals move around under the ground. How can we move like them?
  • Watch ‘Come Outside- Useful holes and Holes in the Ground’. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52SDkNbCMyY

Maths

  • Count worms found when digging.
  • Measure worms-which worm is the longest/ shortest? Chart/ record the lengths.
  • Complete the White Rose Superworm themed tasks here: https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/early-years/
  • Bury some treasure in your garden and make a map with directions for your family to locate the treasure.

Literacy

  • Make your own story about a different animal that becomes a superhero.
  • Use the book to create a collection of rhyming words and phrases. Could you use these to create your own rhyming story?
  • Make a list of words and phrases that are used to describe Superworm.
  • Write about a time when Superhero comes to the rescue.
  • Think of some questions that you might like to ask Superworm. How might he respond?
  • How many different ways is Superworm used in the story? Can you make a new page in which Superworm helps a different animal?
  • Write character descriptions about Superworm and Wizard Lizard.
  • Draw a picture of a worm and write as many describing words around it. Can you make the worm sound really interesting and exciting to another person? Choose your favourite words and put these words into a sentence e.g. ‘Superworm is…’
  • Create your own treasure hunt, writing clues for your family to follow.

 

Phonics- It is highly important that your child practises their letter sounds and tricky words and applies them through a reading and writing activity daily. Reading will help improve their vocabulary and a child’s academic success depends upon the ability to read and write and so this should be a priority.

Please do the daily Department for Education (DFE) ‘Letters and Sounds’ live phonics lesson.

RE

To show that RE is a special learning time, we always light a candle to mark the beginning of lesson and ask ‘Who is with us when we light the candle?’ and ‘Who do we learn about in our RE lesson?’

We then say the school’s Mission Prayer together.

Please see the separate RE blog for the whole school learning focus. Thank you!

Ongoing Further Activities and Information

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8fdk0oKMmfg

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DXDGE_lRI0E

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cc0QVWzCv9k

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QCN893hzueQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSpyKsPiUhs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yjh5Kh5Hxu8

 

Ongoing Maths Activities – try at least one a day

  • Go on a walk and count how many rainbows or teddies you can see in the windows of different houses. Which road has the most?
  • Counting objects within the house-This could be anything as simple as counting the cutlery in your drawer!
  • Looking for shapes in the environment- Can you see the rectangle on the table? The square on the oven door? How many edges does the bookcase have? Can you name the 3D shape that your cereal box is?
  • Using positional and directional language- Where is the teddy? On top, under, behind, in front of, next to, in between etc. Use directions to get from one room to another e.g. walk two steps forward, turn left…
  • Capacity-Fill the bath and give them your child whichever containers you have at home (jugs, Tupperware). Encourage the language of full, nearly full, half full, nearly empty, empty. Will the water to fill this container fit into another container?
  • Time- Create an ‘at home’ timetable together. What shall we do first? What shall do next? What shall we do at the end of the day? Begin to recognise o’ clock times on a clock.
  • Money- Empty your purse or money box. Learn the names of the different coins. Use 1p coins to count and add with.
  • Patterns- Use every day objects around the home to create patterns e.g. pen, fork, sock, pen, fork, sock. Can they continue and copy your pattern? Can they make their own pattern.
  • Length and height- Find three objects from around the home. Can they order them from smallest to largest? Use your feet to measure the length of items in your home (e.g the sofa). How many feet long is it? Counting objects within the house. This could be anything as simple as counting the cutlery in your drawer!
  • Addition using objects found within your home- If we have 5 spoons and 3 forks, how many do we have altogether? Include missing numbers e.g I have 5 buttons. How many more do I need to make 10?
  • Subtraction using objects found within your home- If we have 7 biscuits and I eat 2 how many biscuits are left?
  • Subitising (recognising how many without counting) the amount of objects in a set. How many candles are on the fireplace? How many plates are on the table? Etc
  • Watch a Numberblocks episode each day at: BBC ​iplayer or ​CBeebies​.
  • Practise counting up to 20. This can be done through playing hide and seek, singing number songs, chanting, board games etc.
  • Write out the digits 0 – 9.
  • Sing Number songs to practice counting, reciting numbers in order, one more, one less using number songs: Five Little Ducks, Five Little Men, Ten Green Bottles
  • Practise counting backwards from 20.
  • Look for the numbers on the doors of houses. Do the numbers get bigger or smaller as you go up and down the street?
  • Listen to a number song from the CBeebies​ website. After listening to them, watch again and sing along if you can. Talk about the maths you can see in the video clip.
  • Look out of the window and count how many houses or buildings can be seen
  • Explore weighing and measuring food on the kitchen scales. Ask, what happens as you place more on the scales?
  • Look for numerals on packaging you find around the house. Can your child recognise the numerals and count out a matching amount?

Maths Websites

https://www.topmarks.co.uk/maths-games/5-7-years

https://matr.org/blog/fun-maths-games-activities-for-kids/

https://www.primarygames.com/math.php

https://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/topics/numeracy

https://apps.mathlearningcenter.org/geoboard/

White Rose Maths has prepared a series of five maths lessons for each year group from Year R-8. They will be adding five more each week for the next few weeks. Every lesson comes with a short video showing you clearly and simply how to help your child to complete the activity successfully. Click on the link to find out more.

https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/

Independent writing

Parents, please encourage your child to write as often as you can, using their phonics and tricky word knowledge. Please take a close up picture of any writing they do and upload it to Tapestry. If they are forming their letters incorrectly, the wrong way around or hold their pencil the wrong way, please correct your child immediately. Please refer to the inside cover of their original home phonics book for the handwriting phrases, if you find yourself in this position.

 Phonics

Please continue to practise all of Phase 2 and Phase 3 sounds and tricky words on a daily basis.

Phase 2 tricky and high frequency words

Read: is, it, in, at, and, the, to, no, go, I, on, a

Phase 3 tricky and high frequency words

Read: he, she, we, me, be, was, my, you, they, her, all, are 

Write: the, to, no, go, I 

For those children who know all of the above, please begin to teach the following words from Phase 4. (Consolidating phase) 

Phase 4 tricky words 

Read: said, so, have, like, some, come, were, there, little, one, do, when, out, what 

Information about Phase 4 Phonics

During the summer term and only when the children are secure in Phase 2 and 3, Reception usually move over to the Phase 4 stage of Letters and Sounds. When children start, they will know a grapheme for each of the 42 phonemes. They will be able to blend phonemes to read CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) words and segment in order to spell them.

Children will also have begun reading straightforward two-syllable words and simple captions, as well as reading and spelling some tricky words.

In Phase 4, no new graphemes are introduced. The main aim of this phase is to consolidate the children’s knowledge and to help them learn to read and spell words which have adjacent consonants, such as trap, string and milk.

If your child knows all of the Phase 2 and 3 sounds consistently and the high frequency and tricky words, then please begin to introduce your child to the Phase 4 online games and activities.

Important- Please be aware that if you go onto this phase before they are ready, it may cause your child to have issues with spelling later on in their school life.

The following websites are fantastic for practising phonics phases, word recognition and sentence reading.

https://www.teachyourmonstertoread.com

https://www.phonicsplay.co.uk/freeIndex.htm

https://www.phonicsbloom.com/

http://www.familylearning.org.uk

https://www.topmarks.co.uk

www.letters-and-sounds.com

https://www.spellingcity.com/spelling-games-vocabulary-games.html

Twinkl also have some great phonics and cross curricular resources and are also currently free if you follow these instructions:

Go to https://www.twinkl.co.uk/offer  and enter the code: UKTWINKLHELPS

Phonics Play in particular is a fantastic resource for the actual teaching of the Letters and Sounds program. It is currently free to parents due to the Coronavirus situation. 

Reading

As well as Oxford Owls, Harper Collins Publishers are now giving parents free access to their Big Cat e-books and activities, which are also organised according to book band colour.

Go to Collins Connect and click on the Teacher portal and enter:

Username: parents@harpercollins.co.uk

Password: Parents20!

and then click Login.

To login to Oxford Owl please continue using the school’s login.

https://www.oxfordowl.co.uk/

Username:popepaul2020

Password:Ilovereading2020

You must put the detail into Class Login not the general login otherwise it will not work. Once logged in, you can go into the bookshelf. Select 2 books from your child’s book band colour and practise reading them every day. There are two activities to go with each book and parent tips at the end of the book. If you click on the parents section too, you should find even more books and resources.

Week Beginning 8.6.20 Reception Home Learning Overview

This week’s theme is ‘Spiders’

Choose one or two things from each area to do over the week.

Some of our activities will be based on two stories this week- The Very Busy Spider by Eric Carle and “Aaaarrgghh, Spider!” by Lydia Monks. If you don’t have a copy of the story, don’t worry, you can watch them here:

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=EYFS+Planning+for+the+very+busy+spider&docid=608002665456013171&mid=5241B8985C6FD2BBC0B75241B8985C6FD2BBC0B7&view=detail&FORM=VIRE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5df388jmToo

                                                        

Personal, Social and Emotional Development (PSED)

  • Continue to focus on turn-taking games as a family- board games, sports etc
  • Although we are often frightened of minibeasts such as spiders, wasps and bees, we are giants compared to them. Talk to your child about the need to take care of minibeasts. Create a multi-storey hotel that’s full of all sorts of natural materials, providing hidey-holes for creatures galore. Safe hideaways can be hard for wildlife to find in some gardens, and what better use for all your garden waste and odds and ends? Build your bug hotel (also known as a wildlife hotel or stack) well and it could shelter anything from hedgehogs to toads, solitary bees to bumblebees, and ladybirds to spiders. Look at the RSPB website for ideas on how to build one. https://www.rspb.org.uk/get-involved/activities/give-nature-a-home-in-your-garden/garden-activities/build-a-bug-hotel/
  • In the story “Aaaarrgghh, Spider!” the little spider is very keen to show off his talents. What special talents do you have? Ask an adult to video you showing what you can do and upload it to Tapestry to show Mrs Theo and Mrs Gymer.

 

Communication and Language

  • Talk sensitively about things which scare people but which, when explained are not frightening such as spiders and shadows.
  • Read/ watch The Very Busy Spider and ask some of the following questions to check for understanding.
  • What did the horse invite the spider to do?
  • Why didn’t the spider answer?
  • The cow wanted to share her grass, but the spider ignored her – why?
  • What happened when the sheep wanted to run with the spider?
  • The spider did not answer when the animals spoke to her – was she being rude?
  • The goat tried to get the spider’s attention – what did he say?
  • What did the pig want the spider to do?
  • Why didn’t the spider chase cats with the dog?
  • When it was naptime, who took a nap? What did the spider do?
  • Who wanted to go for a swim with the spider?
  • Who caught the fly?
  • The owl wanted to know who made the web, but got no answer. Why not?

 

Physical Development

Whole School Pope Paul Biking Challenge

We want you to get on your bike and take part in a Pope Paul challenge! This week, try and get out and cycle as much as possible to help us reach our goal of completing a virtual cycle from John O’Groats to Lands End. At the end of the week, send Mrs Theo the total number of miles you cycled and we will add them together with the rest of the school. Our target is to complete the full 874 mile journey as a whole school.

https://www.cyclinguk.org/bikeweek/about

  • Sing the nursery rhyme ‘Little Miss Muffet’. Recite the rhyme several times and then change the ‘sat down beside her’ to include a variety of movements such as ‘jumped down’, ‘tiptoed’ or ‘skipped’. Encourage your child to move in time with the words.
  • Draw/ create a large web outside and move and balance on the web lines in a variety of different ways.
  • Use wool to make a web by weaving in and out of furniture or natural structures such as trees outside.

 

 

Understanding the World

 

Expressive Arts and Design

  • Make a gate out of sticks/straws/wool, just like the gate in The Very Busy Spider story. Make some characters from the story to go on your gate.
  • Sing ‘I know an old lady who swallowed a fly’- https://www.bbc.co.uk/teach/school-radio/nursery-rhymes-i-know-an-old-lady-who-swallowed-a-fly/znwgscw
  • Make webs from a variety of materials and techniques such as:
  • Chalk webs on paper
  • Glittery webs- use PVA glue mixed with shiny glitter and drip directly on to the page (dark coloured paper is best) Add a 3D spider for effect! once dries, you should have a beautiful glittery spider web!
  • Punch holes around the outside of a paper plate. Thread string or wool through the whole and across to the other side of the plate. Keep going until you have a web effect. This is also great for developing fine motor skills.
  • Make your own spiders from a range of materials. See pictures below for some ideas!

Maths

  • Do a survey amongst your friends and family to find out how many people are afraid of spiders. Represent your results in any way that you like.
  • Have all the animals from The Very Busy Spider story ready. Can you remember what animals were first, and then next? Encourage your child to retell the story using appropriate language e.g First, the horse asked the spider…
  • Spiders have 8 legs. Revise previous learning done in class about the number 8- For example, double and halve number 8, how many different ways can you make the number 8. 0+8, 1+7, 2+6 etc Represent these by writing number sentences or drawing pictures.
  • Sort objects into groups of 8.

 

  • Try the daily activity on White Rose Maths: https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/early-years/

This is a video of the story that the maths activities are based on. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=babXCIRMjQM

Literacy

  • Look at the poem ‘Little Miss Muffet’. Ask your adult to help you to write your own rhyming couplets for new characters and places to sit such as `Little Miss Cool, sat on a stool’ and `Tall Doctor Cable, sat under a table’.
  • After watching videos about spiders, write your own spider fact sheet or non- fiction book.
  • Write your own story maps based on either of the two stories that we are focussing on this week.
  • By now, most of the class should be at least on yellow book band. If you haven’t tried already, have a go at getting your child to read a book from this level and check for understanding. If they’ve been on yellow book band for a while and you think that it is now too easy, the level after that is blue book band.
 
  • Phonics- It is highly important that your child practises their letter sounds and tricky words and applies them through a reading and writing activity daily. Reading will help improve their vocabulary and a child’s academic success depends upon the ability to read and write and so this should be a priority.
  • Please do the daily Department for Education (DFE) ‘Letters and Sounds’ live phonics lesson.

 

RE

To show that RE is a special learning time, we always light a candle to mark the beginning of lesson and ask ‘Who is with us when we light the candle?’ and ‘Who do we learn about in our RE lesson?’

We then say the school’s Mission Prayer together.

Please see the separate RE blog for the whole school learning focus and complete Activity One only. Thank you!

                            Ongoing Further Activities and Information

 

Ongoing Maths Activities – try at least one a day

  • Go on a walk and count how many rainbows or teddies you can see in the windows of different houses. Which road has the most?
  • Counting objects within the house-This could be anything as simple as counting the cutlery in your drawer!
  • Looking for shapes in the environment- Can you see the rectangle on the table? The square on the oven door? How many edges does the bookcase have? Can you name the 3D shape that your cereal box is?
  • Using positional and directional language- Where is the teddy? On top, under, behind, in front of, next to, in between etc. Use directions to get from one room to another e.g. walk two steps forward, turn left…
  • Capacity-Fill the bath and give them your child whichever containers you have at home (jugs, Tupperware). Encourage the language of full, nearly full, half full, nearly empty, empty. Will the water to fill this container fit into another container?
  • Time- Create an ‘at home’ timetable together. What shall we do first? What shall do next? What shall we do at the end of the day? Begin to recognise o’ clock times on a clock.
  • Money- Empty your purse or money box. Learn the names of the different coins. Use 1p coins to count and add with.
  • Patterns- Use every day objects around the home to create patterns e.g. pen, fork, sock, pen, fork, sock. Can they continue and copy your pattern? Can they make their own pattern.
  • Length and height- Find three objects from around the home. Can they order them from smallest to largest? Use your feet to measure the length of items in your home (e.g the sofa). How many feet long is it? Counting objects within the house. This could be anything as simple as counting the cutlery in your drawer!
  • Addition using objects found within your home- If we have 5 spoons and 3 forks, how many do we have altogether? Include missing numbers e.g I have 5 buttons. How many more do I need to make 10?
  • Subtraction using objects found within your home- If we have 7 biscuits and I eat 2 how many biscuits are left?
  • Subitising (recognising how many without counting) the amount of objects in a set. How many candles are on the fireplace? How many plates are on the table? Etc
  • Watch a Numberblocks episode each day at: BBC ​iplayer or ​CBeebies​.
  • Practise counting up to 20. This can be done through playing hide and seek, singing number songs, chanting, board games etc.
  • Write out the digits 0 – 9.
  • Sing Number songs to practice counting, reciting numbers in order, one more, one less using number songs: Five Little Ducks, Five Little Men, Ten Green Bottles
  • Practise counting backwards from 20.
  • Look for the numbers on the doors of houses. Do the numbers get bigger or smaller as you go up and down the street?
  • Listen to a number song from the CBeebies​ website. After listening to them, watch again and sing along if you can. Talk about the maths you can see in the video clip.
  • Look out of the window and count how many houses or buildings can be seen
  • Explore weighing and measuring food on the kitchen scales. Ask, what happens as you place more on the scales?
  • Look for numerals on packaging you find around the house. Can your child recognise the numerals and count out a matching amount.

Maths Websites

https://www.topmarks.co.uk/maths-games/5-7-years

https://matr.org/blog/fun-maths-games-activities-for-kids/

https://www.primarygames.com/math.php

https://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/topics/numeracy

https://apps.mathlearningcenter.org/geoboard/

.

White Rose Maths has prepared a series of five maths lessons for each year group from Year R-8. They will be adding five more each week for the next few weeks. Every lesson comes with a short video showing you clearly and simply how to help your child to complete the activity successfully. Click on the link to find out more.

https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/

Independent writing

Parents, please encourage your child to write as often as you can, using their phonics and tricky word knowledge. Please take a close up picture of any writing they do and upload it to Tapestry. If they are forming their letters incorrectly, the wrong way around or hold their pencil the wrong way, please correct your child immediately. Please refer to the inside cover of their original home phonics book for the handwriting phrases, if you find yourself in this position.

 

Phonics

Please continue to practise all of Phase 2 and Phase 3 sounds and tricky words on a daily basis.

Phase 2 tricky and high frequency words

Read: is, it, in, at, and, the, to, no, go, I, on, a

Phase 3 tricky and high frequency words

Read: he, she, we, me, be, was, my, you, they, her, all, are 

Write: the, to, no, go, I 

For those children who know all of the above, please begin to teach the following words from Phase 4. (Consolidating phase) 

Phase 4 tricky words

Read: said, so, have, like, some, come, were, there, little, one, do, when, out, what

Information about Phase 4 Phonics

During the summer term and only when the children are secure in Phase 2 and 3, Reception usually move over to the Phase 4 stage of Letters and Sounds. When children start, they will know a grapheme for each of the 42 phonemes. They will be able to blend phonemes to read CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) words and segment in order to spell them.

Children will also have begun reading straightforward two-syllable words and simple captions, as well as reading and spelling some tricky words.

In Phase 4, no new graphemes are introduced. The main aim of this phase is to consolidate the children’s knowledge and to help them learn to read and spell words which have adjacent consonants, such as trap, string and milk.

If your child knows all of the Phase 2 and 3 sounds consistently and the high frequency and tricky words, then please begin to introduce your child to the Phase 4 online games and activities.

Important- Please be aware that if you go onto this phase before they are ready, it may cause your child to have issues with spelling later on in their school life.

The following websites are fantastic for practising phonics phases, word recognition and sentence reading.

https://www.teachyourmonstertoread.com

 

https://www.phonicsplay.co.uk/freeIndex.htm

 

https://www.phonicsbloom.com/

 

http://www.familylearning.org.uk

 

https://www.topmarks.co.uk

 

www.letters-and-sounds.com

 

https://www.spellingcity.com/spelling-games-vocabulary-games.html

 

Twinkl also have some great phonics and cross curricular resources and are also currently free if you follow these instructions:

 

Go to https://www.twinkl.co.uk/offer  and enter the code: UKTWINKLHELPS

 

 

Phonics Play in particular is a fantastic resource for the actual teaching of the Letters and Sounds program. It is currently free to parents due to the Coronavirus situation.

 

Reading

As well as Oxford Owls, Harper Collins Publishers are now giving parents free access to their Big Cat e-books and activities, which are also organised according to book band colour.

Go to Collins Connect and click on the Teacher portal and enter:

Username: parents@harpercollins.co.uk

Password: Parents20!

and then click Login.

To login to Oxford Owl please continue using the school’s login.

https://www.oxfordowl.co.uk/

Username:popepaul2020

Password:Ilovereading2020

You must put the detail into Class Login not the general login otherwise it will not work. Once logged in, you can go into the bookshelf. Select 2 books from your child’s book band colour and practise reading them every day. There are two activities to go with each book and parent tips at the end of the book. If you click on the parents section too, you should find even more books and resources.